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贾金蓉1, 耿志同2, 王月超3, 李欣怡4, 孙明雨4, 马 红4*, 谷 维1*.黑龙江省大豆田苘麻田间发生动态[J].植物保护,2024,50(3):316-321.
黑龙江省大豆田苘麻田间发生动态
Emergence dynamics of Abutilon theophrasti in soybean fields in Heilongjiang province
投稿时间:2023-06-05  修订日期:2023-09-18
DOI:10.16688/j.zwbh.2023273
中文关键词:  苘麻  出苗  株高  鲜重  大豆
英文关键词:Abutilon theophrasti  emergence  plant height  fresh weight  soybean
基金项目:黑龙江省外向型种植业技术协同创新岗项目
作者单位E-mail
贾金蓉1, 耿志同2, 王月超3, 李欣怡4, 孙明雨4, 马 红4*, 谷 维1* 1. 黑龙江省农业科学院植物保护研究所, 哈尔滨 150086
2. 阿荣旗农业事业发展中心, 呼伦贝尔 162750
3. 黑龙江省农业科学院作物资源研究所, 哈尔滨 150086
4. 东北农业大学植物保护学院, 哈尔滨 150030 
马红157492795@qq.com; 谷维guwei_link@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      随着大豆种植面积逐年增加, 黑龙江省大豆田苘麻的危害也显著加重。掌握苘麻在大豆田中的发生规律, 抓住防除苘麻的关键时期, 可以更好地制定科学有效的综合防除策略。本研究通过田间调查及数据统计分析初步分析了苘麻的田间发生动态。结果表明, 拔除处理的苘麻种群数量达79.0株/m2, 显著高于不拔除处理的苘麻累计出苗数18株/m2, 且不拔除处理苘麻累计出苗数比其最高值33.8株/m2减少了46.75%。5月下旬到9月初苘麻的株高及鲜重变化曲线呈S形, 即表现“慢-快-慢”的基本规律。大豆播种后10~20 d为苘麻出苗高峰期, 6月中旬到7月中旬为苘麻快速生长期, 7月下旬苘麻进入开花结实期, 8月中旬苘麻种子逐渐成熟, 9月初苘麻种子大部分成熟。单株苘麻的生物量和结籽量随着出苗时间的推迟而降低。5月下旬到7月上旬出苗的苘麻均能开花结实完成整个生长繁殖过程, 且出苗越早的苘麻开花期越长, 苘麻蒴果的平均直径更大, 单蒴果平均种子数更多, 结实能力更强。7月中旬以后出苗的苘麻不能开花无生殖生长。
英文摘要:
      With the increase of soybean planting area year by year in Heilongjiang province, damage of Abutilon theophrasti has also increased significantly. This study aimed to clear occurrence regularity of A.theophrasti in soybean field, seize the critical period of prevention and control of A.theophrasti, and better formulate scientific and effective integrated control strategies. Field occurrence of the A.theophrasti were investigated by field survey and statistical analysis. The results showed that the accumulative total number of seedling emergence of removed A.theophrasti was 79.0 plants/m2, significantly higher than that of the total number of not removed A.theophrasti, which was 18 plants/m2.The total number of not removed A.theophrasti seedling emergence decreased by 46.75% compared with the highest value of 33.8 plants/m2. The curve of plant height and fresh weight of A.theophrasti from late May to early September was S-shaped, which showed the basic rule of “slow, fast and slow”. From 10 to 20 days after soybean sowing, the peak of seedling emergence of A.theophrasti was observed. The rapid growth period was from mid-June to mid-July. In late July, A.theophrasti entered the fruiting stage. In mid-August, the seeds gradually matured, and most of the seeds matured in early September. The biomass and seed amount of A.theophrasti per plant decreased with the delay of emergence time. A.theophrasti seedling emerged from late May to early July can bloom and bear fruit to complete the whole growth and reproduction process, and the earlier the emergence of seedlings, the longer the flowering period, the thicker the mean capsule diameter, the higher the average number of seeds per capsule, and the stronger the fruiting ability. However, A.theophrasti seedling emerged after mid-July cannot bloom and grow without reproduction.
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