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刘万才1, 李 跃1, 王保通2, 李好海3, 冯小军4, 刘 媛5, 彭 红3, 吕国强3, 张光先6, 王 玲7, 赵中华1, 王晓杰2*, 康振生2*.小麦条锈病跨区域全周期绿色防控技术体系的构建与应用[J].植物保护,2024,50(3):1-9.
小麦条锈病跨区域全周期绿色防控技术体系的构建与应用
Construction and application of a green pest management technical systemfor wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici in China
投稿时间:2024-03-15  修订日期:2024-04-03
DOI:10.16688/j.zwbh.2024150
中文关键词:  小麦条锈病  条锈菌  跨区域全周期  绿色防控  技术体系  大区流行
英文关键词:wheat stripe rust  Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici  cross-regional & comprehensive period  green pest management  technical system  regional epidemic
基金项目:“十四五”国家重点研发计划(2021YFD1401000)
作者单位E-mail
刘万才1, 李 跃1, 王保通2, 李好海3, 冯小军4, 刘 媛5, 彭 红3, 吕国强3, 张光先6, 王 玲7, 赵中华1, 王晓杰2*, 康振生2* 1. 全国农业技术推广服务中心, 国家农业技术集成创新中心, 北京 100125
2. 西北农林科技大学植物保护学院, 作物抗逆与高效生产全国重点实验室, 杨凌 712100
3. 河南省植保植检站, 郑州 450002
4. 陕西省植物保护工作总站, 西安 710005
5. 宁夏回族自治区农业技术推广总站, 银川 750001
6. 河南省邓州市植保植检站, 邓州 474150
7. 宁夏回族自治区固原市原州区农业技术推广中心, 固原 756000 
王晓杰wangxiaojie@nwsuaf.edu.cn; 康振生kangzs@nwsuaf.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      小麦条锈病是我国小麦生产上一种跨区域流行的重大病害。1949年以来, 我国小麦条锈病研究, 治理能力明显提升, 发病面积、流行程度、流行频率明显降低, 但由于条锈菌Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici新毒性小种不断产生和气候异常变化等因素的影响, 近年来其流行规律和成灾机制出现了新的变化, 发生危害加重, 严重威胁小麦生产和国家粮食安全。基于“十二五”以来我国在小麦条锈病菌毒性新小种产生、有性生殖、侵染循环和大区流行规律等方面的最新研究成果, 作者在学习和实践以往病害治理经验的基础上, 坚持长短结合、标本兼治、分区治理、综合防治的指导思想, 制定了“以绿色防控为基础, 以全周期管理为重点, 以跨区域联防联控为保障”的防控策略, 提出了精准监测预报、毒性小种变异监测、早期菌源控制、抗病品种合理布局和应急防控等关键技术, 集成构建了全国小麦条锈病跨区域全周期绿色防控技术体系, 制定了越夏易变区、冬季繁殖区(越冬区)和春季流行区分区防控技术体系。经在小麦条锈病主要流行区大面积试验示范, 取得了防控效果85%以上, 化学农药用量减少10%以上, 小麦单产提高5%以上的成效。2022年-2023年在全国小麦主产区大范围组织推广应用, 有效控制了小麦条锈病严重流行势头, 全国病害发生面积出现了新低, 有效减轻了灾害损失, 保障了国家粮食安全。
英文摘要:
      Wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici is a major disease posing a threat to wheat production across China’s wheat production regions. Since 1949, substantial advancements have been made in the research and management of wheat stripe rust in China, resulting in a significant reduction in its prevalence, occurrence area, and frequency of epidemics. However, the emergence of new virulent races and abnormal climate factors, in recent years, has led to new changes in epidemic patterns and disaster mechanisms, posing severe threat to wheat production and national food security. Based on the latest research results related to the emergence of new virulent races, sexual reproduction, infection cycle, and large regional epidemic patterns of wheat stripe rust in China since the “12th Five-Year Plan”, this study, on the basis of learning and practicing the past disease management experience, adheres to the guiding ideology of combining short-term and long-term measures, addressing both symptoms and root causes, zoning management, and comprehensive prevention and control, formulates prevention and control strategy termed “green prevention and control as a basis, whole-cycle management as a focus, and cross-regional joint prevention and control as a guarantee” proposes key technologies such as accurate monitoring and prediction, monitoring variation of virulent races, early source control, rational distribution of disease-resistant varieties, and emergency prevention and control, integrates and builds a cross-regional whole-cycle green prevention and control technology system in zonal areas, including the oversummering and variable area, winter reproduction area (overwintering area), and spring epidemic area. Through large-scale trials and demonstrations in the major epidemic areas of wheat stripe rust, the proposed strategy has achieved significant results with control effect exceeding 85%, pesticide usage reduced by over 10%, and the wheat yield per unit area increased by more than 5%. Following extensive promotion and application across the main wheat-producing areas of the country in 2022-2023, the severe epidemic trend of wheat stripe rust has been effectively controlled, epidemic area has reached a new low, disaster losses have been reduced, and national food security has been guaranteed.
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