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曾 荣1, 方文生2, 孙 杨1, 华菊玲1, 曹坳程2*, 李信申1*.二甲基二硫与氯化苦联合熏蒸防治山药土传病害效果及生物安全性评价[J].植物保护,2023,49(2):184-191.
二甲基二硫与氯化苦联合熏蒸防治山药土传病害效果及生物安全性评价
Efficacy of fumigation with DMDS and CP against soil-borne diseases of yam and its biosafety evaluation
投稿时间:2021-11-22  修订日期:2022-02-07
DOI:10.16688/j.zwbh.2021652
中文关键词:  二甲基二硫联合氯化苦熏蒸  山药土传病害  防控效果  生物安全性
英文关键词:fumigation of DMDS and CP  soil-borne diseases of yam  control efficacy  biosafety
基金项目:江西省薯类产业技术体系建设项目(JXARS-19-03); 国家重点研发计划 (2017YFD0201606); 国家自然科学基金(31972313)
作者单位E-mail
曾 荣1, 方文生2, 孙 杨1, 华菊玲1, 曹坳程2*, 李信申1* ZENG Rong1, FANG Wensheng2, SUN Yang1, HUA Juling1, CAO Aocheng2*, LI Xinshen1* 曹坳程caoac@vip. sina.com; 李信申lixinshen0@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为明确二甲基二硫(dimethyl disulfide, DMDS)与氯化苦(chloropicrin, CP)联合熏蒸对江西黏重土壤条件下山药土传病害的防控效果及生物安全性, 选择土质黏重的连作红壤旱地进行熏蒸试验?结果表明, DMDS和CP联合熏蒸对枯萎病和立枯病的防效为90.56%, 对根系生长旺盛期吸收根根结线虫病的防效为99.61%, 对收获期块茎根结线虫?根腐线虫病的防效为88.70%?解除胁迫后20~120 d, 熏蒸处理山药根际土壤微生物总量与空白对照(CK)差异不显著, 但真菌/细菌?真菌/放线菌比值显著低于CK(P<0.05), 芽胞杆菌数量显著高于CK(P<0.05)?熏蒸处理山药出苗率与CK没有显著差异; 山药齐苗期蔓基直径和藤蔓鲜重分别为3.40 mm和76.08 g, 甩蔓盛期叶片叶绿素相对含量(SPAD)为52.56, 均显著高于CK(P<0.05); 收获期商品薯产量为21 292.86 kg/hm2, 显著高于CK?综上, DMDS和CP联合熏蒸对江西黏重土壤条件下山药土传病害均具有良好的防病效果, 对山药和土壤微生物安全, 增产效果显著?
英文摘要:
      To evaluate the control efficacy of soil fumigation with dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and chloropicrin (CP) against the soil-borne diseases of yam in the heavy clay soils of Jiangxi province and its biological safety, a continuously cropped upland red soil field with heavy clay was selected for fumigation experiment. The results showed that the control efficacy of DMDS combined with CP against Fusarium wilt and Rhizoctonia wilt of yam was 90.56%, and its control efficacies against root knot nematode disease of the absorbing roots during the period of vigorous root growth, root knot nematode disease and root rot nematode disease of the tubers during harvest period were 99.61% and 88.70%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the total amount of microorganisms in the rhizosphere soil of yam between fumigation treatment and the control group 20 to120 days after fumigation. However, the number of bacillus was significantly higher than that of the control (P<0.05), and the ratios of fungi to bacteria and fungi to actinomycete in the rhizosphere soil treated by fumigation were significantly lower compared to the control (P<0.05). There was no significant difference of the emergence rate of yam between fumigation treatment group of DMDS + CP and the control group. The diameter of vine base and vine fresh weight at the seedling emergence stage were 3.40 mm and 76.08 g, respectively. The relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) in leaves during yam jilt tendril period was 52.56, which was significantly higher than that of the control (P<0.05). The yield of marketable tubers at the harvesting stage was 21 292.86 kg/hm2, which was significantly higher than that of the control. These results indicated that the combined fumigation of DMDS and CP had good control efficacy against yam soil-borne diseases in heavy clay soils of Jiangxi province. It was safe for yam tubers and the soil microbial community, and had a significant yield-increasing effect on yam tubers.
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