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韩云静1, 张 勇1, 周振荣2, 沈 艳1, 刘小林1, 周凤艳1*.安徽省麦田杂草种类组成变化及群落特征分析[J].植物保护,2020,46(4):210-216.
安徽省麦田杂草种类组成变化及群落特征分析
Variation of weed species composition and community characteristics in wheat fields of Anhui province
投稿时间:2019-04-23  修订日期:2019-07-03
DOI:10.16688/j.zwbh.2019209
中文关键词:  麦田  杂草  优势种群  群落多样性
英文关键词:wheat field  weeds  dominant population  community diversity
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年科学基金(31501658);安徽省农业科学院农药安全应用与评价科技创新团队(15C1105)
作者单位E-mail
韩云静1, 张 勇1, 周振荣2, 沈 艳1, 刘小林1, 周凤艳1* 1. 安徽省农业科学院植物保护与农产品质量安全研究所, 合肥 230031
2. 安徽省马鞍山市当涂县农业技术推广中心, 马鞍山 243100 
zbszhoufy@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为明确近年来安徽省麦田杂草种类组成及群落结构变化情况,本研究采用倒置“W”取样法对安徽省麦田杂草进行了连续两年的跟踪调查,结果发现麦田杂草有19科72种,其中禾本科、菊科、蓼科种类最多。优势杂草有节节麦Aegilops tauschii、野燕麦Avena fatua、日本看麦娘Alopecurus japonicus、看麦娘A.aequalis、菵草Beckmannia syzigachne、猪殃殃Galium spurium等6种,区域性优势杂草有5种,常见杂草有8种,一般杂草有53种。此外,不同地区优势杂草存在差异,淮北草害区是以猪殃殃+节节麦+野燕麦为主的杂草群落;江淮丘陵草害区为日本看麦娘+看麦娘+猪殃殃+菵草;江南草害区为日本看麦娘+看麦娘+菵草。从杂草的分布来看,江淮丘陵草害区的杂草群落物种丰富度、多样性最高,杂草有56种,香农指数最高,为2.34;江南草害区杂草群落物种丰富度最低,有17种杂草,辛普森指数最高,为0.037,均匀度指数也较低,为0.29,优势杂草突出;从相似性指数来看,安徽省三大草害区之间的相似性指数都小于等于0.5,差异性较大。同时,安徽省麦田杂草入侵问题严重,节节麦甚至已经成为某些地区的优势杂草之一,而大穗看麦娘A.myosuroides在安徽省局部地区也多有发生。
英文摘要:
      In order to clarify the composition and community structure changes of weeds in wheat fields of Anhui province in recent years, the inverted “W” sampling method was used to investigate the weeds species in two years. The results showed that there were 72 species, which belonged to 19 families, and the most species were in Poaceae, Asteraceae and Polygonaceae. The dominant weeds in wheat field were Aegilops tauschii, Avena fatua, Alopecurus japonicus, A.aequalis,Beckmannia syzigachne and Galium spurium. There were also 5 regional dominant weeds, 8 common weeds and 53 general weeds. Besides, the dominant weeds were different in different areas, as the main weed community is G.spurium+A.tauschii+A.fatua in Huaibei area, A.japonicus+A.aequalis+G.spurium+B.syzigachne in Jianghuai hilly area, and A.japonicus+A.aequalis+B.syzigachne in Jiangnan area. As for the weeds distribution, the highest species richness and diversity of the weed community was the Jianghuai area, with 56 species weeds and the Shannon-Wiener index of 2.34. The lowest species richness of the weed community was the Jiangnan area, with 17 species of weeds and the Simpson index of 0.037, and low Pielou index of 0.29. The Sorensen coefficient of similarity between the three areas was all less than 0.5. Furthermore, weed invasion is serious in wheat field, A.tauschii even has become the local dominant weed, A.myosuroides also happens frequently in some areas of Anhui province.
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