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马 秋1,2, 章 勇3, 王照国1,2, 段 炼1,2, 宋俊蓉1,2,刘务玲1,2, 王春林1,2, 杨 华4, 李 1,2*.5种植物精油抑菌活性及其化学成分研究[J].植物保护,2020,46(4):161-167.
5种植物精油抑菌活性及其化学成分研究
Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from five plants
投稿时间:2019-04-26  修订日期:2019-09-20
DOI:10.16688/j.zwbh.2019215
中文关键词:  植物精油  抑菌活性  化学成分
英文关键词:essential oil  antibacterial activity  chemical constituent
基金项目:国家自然科学基金地区基金(31660530);国家重点研发计划子课题(2017YFD0201402-05);贵州省科学基金(黔科合J字[2017]5737,黔科合支撑[2018]2357,黔科合支撑[2017]2550,黔科合基础[2018]1108)
作者单位E-mail
马 秋1,2, 章 勇3, 王照国1,2, 段 炼1,2, 宋俊蓉1,2,刘务玲1,2, 王春林1,2, 杨 华4, 李 1,2* 1. 贵州医科大学省部共建药用植物功效与利用国家重点实验室, 贵阳 550014
2. 贵州省中国科学院天然产物化学重点实验室/贵州省天然药物工程研究中心, 贵阳 550014
3. 广东省昆虫行为调控工程技术研究中心,华南农业大学农学院, 广州 510642
4. 延安大学化学与化工学院, 延安 716000 
liyan1612@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      从植物精油中寻找新型抑菌剂是植物化学研究的一个方向。本试验提取了丁香、八角、孜然、薄荷和生姜5种药食兼用植物的精油,采用抑制菌丝生长法和96孔板法测试了5种精油对8种植物病原真菌和5种细菌的抑菌活性。结果表明5种植物精油对测试真菌有不同程度的抑制作用,丁香的抑制作用最强,对梨黑星病菌的抑制作用最强,其IC50为93.44 mg/L;5种植物精油对测试细菌的抑菌作用较弱,孜然和生姜精油对青枯菌的抑制最强,最小抑菌浓度(MIC)也仅为125 mg/L。采用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)分析了各精油的主要化学成分,八角主要成分为茴香脑(53.16%),薄荷主要成分为长叶薄荷酮(15.85%),丁香主要成分为丁子香酚(82.68%),生姜主要成分为香叶醛(16.80%),孜然主要成分为茴香甲醛(46.06%)。本研究结果表明丁香具有开发为新型植物源抑菌剂的潜力。
英文摘要:
      Finding new bacteriostatic agents from plant essential oils is a trend in phytochemical research. In this study, the essential oils were extracted from five kinds of plants, Syzygium aromaticum, Illicium verum Hook. f., Cuminum cyminum L., Mentha haplocalyx Briq. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe by steam distillation. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the essential oils from the five plants were tested by inhibiting mycelial growth and using 96-well method. The results of antifungal activity showed that the essential oils from the five plants had varying degrees inhibitory effects on the growth of eight plant pathogenic fungal hyphae. The antifungal activity of S.aromaticum oil was the strongest, with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 93.44 mg/L against V.piritna. The results of antibacterial activity showed that the essential oils had weak activities against all five tested bacteria. The oils of Z.officinale and C. cyminum showed strong activities against R.solanacearum and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 125 mg/L. The chemical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the main component of essential oils of I.verum was anethole (53.16%). The main content of M.haplocalyx was pulegone (15.85%), and the main contents of S.aromaticum, Z.officinale and C. cyminum were eugenol (82.68%), geranyl aldehyde (16.80%)and fennel formaldehyde (46.06%), respectively. These results indicated that S.aromaticum has the potential for development of novel plant-derived bacteriostats.
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