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何康来*, 王振营.草地贪夜蛾对Bt玉米的抗性与治理对策思考[J].植物保护,2020,46(3):1-15.
草地贪夜蛾对Bt玉米的抗性与治理对策思考
Resistance evolution to Bt maize in the fall army worm and consideration on IRM strategy in China
投稿时间:2020-04-29  修订日期:2020-05-02
DOI:DOI: 10.16688/j.zwbh.2020224
中文关键词:  草地贪夜蛾  Bt玉米  害虫抗性演化  抗性治理  对策
英文关键词:Spodoptera frugiperda  Bt maize  evolution of insect resistance  IRM  strategy
基金项目:中国农业科学院重大科研任务(CAAS-ZDRW202007)
作者单位E-mail
何康来*, 王振营 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 植物病虫害生物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100193 E-mail:klhe@ippcaas.cn 
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中文摘要:
      Bt玉米已在美洲广泛种植20多年,成功控制了欧洲玉米螟Ostrinia nubilalis、草地贪夜蛾Spodoptera frugiperda等玉米重大害虫为害。然而,近年来相继报道在波多黎各、巴西、阿根廷因草地贪夜蛾产生抗性而导致一些Bt玉米抗虫性丧失。尤其是在热带和亚热带地区,多数Bt玉米品种商业化种植仅3年就丧失了对草地贪夜蛾的抗性。本文分析了草地贪夜蛾的生物学和生态学、对Bt杀虫蛋白抗性遗传特征和交互抗性特性、种群抗性基因频率等内因对抗性演化的影响,以及Bt玉米种植的生态环境、耕作栽培制度、Bt玉米种类、抗性治理策略实施情况等外部环境因素对抗性演化的影响。根据我国玉米种植的生态格局,提出了“整体布局,源头治理”的抗性治理对策。即在草地贪夜蛾周年繁殖区要谨慎种植Bt玉米,尤其是避免种植表达Cry1Ab杀虫蛋白的Bt玉米,以避免源头产生抗性而危及温带玉米主产区。遵循差异化(不同杀虫作用机理)选择Bt玉米品种原则,制定精准抗性监测计划,以高剂量-庇护所为抗性治理基本策略,在Bt玉米资源有限的情况下,落实好庇护所尤为重要。
英文摘要:
      Bt maize has been commercialized for over 20 years in the American countries, which was successfully used to control a number of economically important insect pests such as the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda,etc. However, a couple of resistance cases have threatened their efficacy and resulted in the failure of field control. What’s worse, most Bt maize events/stacks varieties lost their ability to control FAW in just 3 years after their release in the tropical and subtropical agricultural ecosystems. In this paper, we reviewed the internal and external factors which drove/facilitated the rapid evolution of FAW resistance, including the biology and ecology of FAW, its inheritance of resistance, cross resistance to different Bt proteins, initial allele frequency of resistance in the field populations, agroecosystem landscape of Bt maize planting, cropping systems, Bt maize events, adaptation of insect resistance management (IRM) practices, etc. Furthermore, we suggested a“Natal Source IRM”strategy based on the integral scenario of maize cropping landscape throughout the country, i. e., careful consideration should be taken in deploying Bt maize in the tropical and subtropical regions of China (winter maize region) where FAW reproduced year-round and is the source of adults to migrate to the Yangtze River Basin, Huanghuaihai summer maize region, even up to the northern spring maize region. If the resistance evolved in the Natal Source of FAW population, it will diminish the Bt maize efficacy in the rest regions of the country. Even more care should be taken in deploying Bt maize expressing Cry1Ab protein in the winter maize region. At least, different Bt maize varieties (without cross resistance) should be used between tropical and temperate regions. In addition, IRM plans should be designed to ensure a reliable resistance monitoring program, ensure refuge compliance to make high dose refuge as a corner stone tactics under limited Bt maize resources.
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