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太红坤 1, 郭井菲 2, 杨世常 3, 张峰 4, 刘杰 5, 杨煜卿 6, 宋梅 6, 夏银果 3, 何珂 3, 蔺乔仙 3, 王振营 2*.草地贪夜蛾在云南德宏州甘蔗上的生物学习性及为害状观察[J].植物保护,2019,45(6):75-79.
草地贪夜蛾在云南德宏州甘蔗上的生物学习性及为害状观察
Biological characteristics and damage symptoms of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, on sugarcane in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province
投稿时间:2019-09-15  修订日期:2019-09-27
DOI:10.16688/j.zwbh.2019488
中文关键词:  草地贪夜蛾  甘蔗  生物学习性  为害
英文关键词:Spodoptera frugiperda  sugarcane  biological characteristics  damage
基金项目:中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(Y2019YJ06);德宏州第四批创新人才资助项目(德创人2015-4-2)
作者单位E-mail
太红坤 1, 郭井菲 2, 杨世常 3, 张峰 4, 刘杰 5, 杨煜卿 6, 宋梅 6, 夏银果 3, 何珂 3, 蔺乔仙 3, 王振营 2* 1. 云南省德宏州植保植检站, 芒市 678400
2. 中国农业科学院植物保护研究所, 北京 100193
3. 云南省德宏州甘蔗科学研究所, 陇川 678707
4. 农业农村部-CABI生物安全联合实验室, 北京 100193
5. 全国农业技术推广服务中心, 北京 100125
6. 云南省德宏州盈江县植保植检站, 盈江 679300 
zywang@ippcaas.cn 
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中文摘要:
      自草地贪夜蛾2019年1月入侵我国云南普洱、德宏和保山后, 2019年4月17日在德宏州陇川县首次发现草地贪夜蛾为害甘蔗苗。田间调查结果表明, 云南省甘蔗主栽区陇川县的5个乡镇均发生草地贪夜蛾为害, 单作田被害株率为2.49%, 幼虫数为0.07头/m 2。不同乡镇甘蔗苗的被害株率存在显著差异(F=2.918, P=0.042), 但宿根蔗和新植蔗的被害株率无显著差异(F=3.551, P=0.072)。在盈江县甘蔗主栽区平原镇的3个村民小组均有草地贪夜蛾发生为害, 甘蔗与玉米间作田甘蔗和玉米的被害株率分别是10.07%和60.11%, 百株虫量分别是2.82头和23.97头, 甘蔗和玉米的被害株率(t=3.221, P=0.032)和百株虫量(t=3.975, P=0.016)均存在显著性差异。甘蔗间作玉米田与甘蔗单作田相比, 间作田甘蔗的被害株率显著高于单作田(t=4.728, P=0.0)。草地贪夜蛾田间发生世代重叠严重。幼虫主要取食蔗苗的叶片、生长点和茎基部, 1~3龄幼虫潜藏在蔗苗心叶中取食叶肉, 4~6龄幼虫白天喜潜藏于土壤表层蛀食蔗苗茎基部造成枯心苗, 高龄幼虫还会咬断蔗苗生长点形成断苗, 啃食蔗叶形成缺刻或孔洞。草地贪夜蛾的为害可影响甘蔗的正常生长并造成一定的产量损失。
英文摘要:
      The fall armyworm caused leaf damage on sugarcane seedlings by feeding was firstly observed on April 17, 2019 in Longchuan county of Dehong prefecture since its invasion into Puer city, Dehong prefecture and Baoshan city of Yunnan province in China in January, 2019. Field study showed that fall armyworm occurred on sugarcane in five towns of Longchuan county, the main area for sugarcane cultivation in Yunnan province. The plant damage rate by fall armyworm and the number of larvae per square meters in sugarcane field (single cropping pattern) were 2.49% and 0.07 individuals, respectively. The damage rate caused by fall armyworm on sugarcane were significantly different among five towns (F=2.918, P=0.042), but no significant difference was observed in the damage rate between ratooning sugarcane and the newly planted sugarcane (F=3.551, P=0.072). Fall armyworm infesting sugarcane and maize (sugarcane-maize cropping pattern) was observed in the three villages of Pingyuan town, another main area of sugarcane cultivation in Yunnan province. The damage percentage on sugarcane and maize plants were 10.07% and 60.11%, respectively. The number of larvae per 100 plants on sugarcane and maize were 2.82 and 23.97 individuals, respectively. Significant differences were recorded on the damage rate (t=3.221, P=0.032) and the number of larvae per 100 plants (t=3.975, P=0.016). In addition, the damage rate on sugarcane in a sugarcane-maize cropping pattern was significantly higher than that in sugarcane single cropping pattern (t=4.728, P=0.0). There was a considerable overlapping in fall armyworm generations in sugarcane field. Fall armyworm larvae feed different parts of the sugarcane plants, such as leaves, growing point and underground plant part. Young larvae (1st-3rd instar) tend to infest the whorl and mostly feed the mesophyll. Older larvae (4th-6th instar) dwell in soil surface during daytime and burrow into the underground plant part, causing serious damage to the seedlings. The older larvae also prefer the leaves of the sugarcane seedlings, resulting mass of holes and ragged edges in leaves, and even break seedlings by cutting growing point. In conclusion, fall armyworm’s damage on sugarcane has an adverse impact on cultivation and yield.
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